21 Nov United Nations, The Guardian of World Peace and Justice
United Nations, have you ever heard about that organization? Do you know who are they? When it comes to world peace, the United Nations is the answer. In this world, not just between countries, fellow humans must also have experienced fights and disputes. Well, fellow human beings may be able to solve it personally and kinship without the need for a third party to be professionally involved. However, what if there are conflicts between countries, whether disputes, cold wars, or wars that can lead to bloodshed? Of course it will affect and harm many things.
Many human lives will be threatened as a result of the conflict, the economy may decline, trade activities that have been promised cannot run well, and even the worst will create 2 camps that are pro and contra against the country involved in the conflict (especially if the country is one of the largest economy in the world). Therefore, it takes an organization or a third party such as the United Nations that can help resolve matters relating to the welfare of a country.
Curious about the origins of the UN itself and what are their duties and roles in upholding justice? Let’s we take a look to the article below!
History of the United Nations
If we look back to the past, the United Nations or abbreviated as UN is an international organization that was founded on October 24, 1945 in San Francisco, United States of America, to encourage international cooperation. This organization is a successor to the League of Nations and was established after World War II to prevent similar conflicts.
The UN only had 51 member states when it was first established, and now there have been 193 members who have joined in it. Besides the member states, several international organizations, and inter-state organizations have a place as permanent observers who have offices at UN Headquarters, and some are only observers.
Palestine and the Vatican are non-member states and are permanent observers (Vatican has a permanent representative, while Palestine has a permanent office at the United Nations).
The United Nations Charter was drafted at a conference in April-June 1945. This Charter came into force on October 24, 1945 which marked the start of the United Nations to operate. The first UN General Assembly was attended by representatives from 51 countries which took place on January 10, 1946 at Church House, London.
The UN Headquarters is located in New York, United States of America, and has extraterritoriality rights. Other main offices are located in Geneva, Nairobi and Vienna. Estimated contributions and voluntary contributions from member countries fund this organization.
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The United Nations in the eyes of International
The purpose of the UN was established to maintain world peace and justice. It is not surprising that until now the commitment of UN member states has continued to strengthen to maintain international peace and security. They also takes a role and attitude towards various problems in the international world.
The member states of the this organization are fully committed to maintaining international peace, security, and justice; developing friendly relations between countries; promoting social development; improving decent living standards; and human rights from the very beginning. Even one of the commitments made by its members are SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) were conducted as a joint movement to stop a variety of problems in the world and ensure that everyone can live decently in 2030.
Through the six main organs in the UN, this organization can take moves and actions towards various problems in the international world, as well as providing a forum for 192 member countries to express their views.
The scope of the UN’s role includes peacekeeping, conflict prevention and humanitarian assistance. In addition, fundamental issues such as sustainable development, environment and refugee protection, disaster relief, terrorism, disarmament and non-proliferation, promoting democracy, human rights, gender equality and women’s empowerment, governance, economic and social development, health, clean-up efforts landmines, expansion of food production, and various other matters are also handled by the UN in order to achieve its goals and coordinate efforts for a safer world for this and future generations.
Goals of the United Nations
The goals that this organization strives for are divided into 2, namely general goals and objectives according to the preamble of the charter. Its objectives are as follows.
The general objectives are:
1. To maintain world peace and security.
2. Promote and encourage brotherly relations between nations through respect for human rights.
3. Fostering international cooperation in economic, social, cultural, and environmental development.
4. To become the center of alignment of all joint actions against countries that endanger world peace.
5. Provide humanitarian assistance in the event of famine, natural disasters, and armed conflict.
The Purposes according to the preamble of the charter:
- Save future generations from the disaster of war.
2. Strengthening belief in human rights, in the dignity and worth of human beings and in equal rights for men and women, and for all nations, large and small.
3. Creating conditions that allow the maintenance of justice and respect for obligations arising from international treaties and other international sources.
4. Promote social progress and a better standard of living.
Principles of the United Nations
The principles of the UN in article 2 of the Charter of the United Nations are set out seven principles are as follows:
1. The UN was established on the basis of equality of all members. Each member has the same sovereignty.
2. All members shall fulfill their obligations sincerely and wholeheartedly as enshrined in the charter.
3. All members must settle their international disputes by peaceful means so as not to jeopardize peace, security and justice.
4. In carrying out international relations, each member must avoid the use of threats and violence against other countries.
5. All members shall assist the UN in the actions it takes under the provisions of the charter.
6. The UN will ensure that non-member countries act in accordance with established principles.
7. The UN will not interfere in the internal affairs of each member state.
Six main organs of the UN
The UN General Assembly
The UN General Assembly is one of the six main organs of the UN. This Assembly is made up of members from all member states and meets annually under a President of the United Nations General Assembly who is elected from among the representatives. The first meeting was held on 10 January 1946 at Westminster Middle Hall in London and included representatives from 51 countries.
The UN Security Council
The UN Security Council is the strongest body in the United Nations. Its duty is to maintain peace and security between countries. While other UN bodies can only make recommendations to members, the Security Council has the power to make decisions that members must implement under the UN Charter. The Security Council held its first meeting on January 17, 1946 at Church House, London and the decisions they adopted were called United Nations Security Council Resolutions.
UN Economic and Social Council
The Economic and Social Council is one of the six main UN agencies responsible for coordinating the economic and social fields. The scope of work of this council is in charge of 15 specialized agencies, eight functional commissions, and five regional commissions. The members of the United Nations Economic and Social Council are made up of 54 member states who are elected annually for an overlapping three-year term.
UN Trusteeship Council
The United Nations Trusteeship Council is an international trusteeship system that has further been established by United Nations members to govern local governments placed under United Nations supervision through individual trusteeship agreements.
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The UN Secretariat is one of the main agencies of the United Nations and is headed by a United Nations Secretary-General, assisted by a worldwide government assistant staff. This agency provides the research, information, and facilities needed by the organization for its meetings. The agency also carries out tasks as regulated by the UN Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and other agencies. Ban Ki-moon from South Korea is the current Secretary General of the United Nations who has served since January 1, 2007.
International Court of Justice
Based in Den Haag, Netherlands, this Court is the most important judicial body in this organization. The security council can refer a legal dispute to the court and the security council can ask the court for advice on any legal matter. Economic and social councils, councils of representatives, interim committees of general assemblies, and some intergovernmental bodies may also seek advice on legal matters within the scope of their activities.
Those are some informations about the guardian of world security, peace and justice, namely the United Nations. How bout you Comunity friends? Do you understand what the roles and duties of the United Nations? And are you interested in being one of the delegates representing your country in this big organization? If you are interested, maybe you can try participating in MUN which is a simulation that teaches you to act as World delegates and how to work in this organization. Hopefully this article can help and inspire all of us to always maintain peace and justice, both among humans and among countries. Nos vemos!