26 Oct 4 Indicators Towards Gender Equality That Must Be Fulfilled
To achieve the goal of gender equality, we need to know what the definition of gender equality is, the reasons why gender equality must be done, along with what indicators we must know to be able to measure the extent to which gender equality can be said to be successful.
This article aims to educate readers about gender equality, as one of the media to achieve the SDGs agenda, especially in SDGs No. 5.
What is Gender Equality?
Gender is the differentiation of roles, attributes, traits, attitudes and behaviors that grow and develop in society. And gender roles are divided into productive roles, reproductive roles and social roles.
The word gender can be interpreted as the roles formed by the community and the behavior that is embedded through the socialization process related to the gender of women and men. There are biological differences between women and men, but culture interprets these biological differences into a set of social demands about appropriate behavior, and in turn rights, resources and power.
While these demands vary by society, there are some striking similarities. For example, almost all community groups hand over responsibility for child care to women, while military duties are assigned to men.
Like race, ethnicity, and class, gender is a social category that largely determines a person’s way of life and participation in society and the economy.
Not all societies experience discrimination based on race or ethnicity, but all societies experience discrimination based on gender in the form of inequalities and differences to varying degrees.
It often takes a long time to change this injustice. This atmosphere of injustice can sometimes change drastically due to policies and socio-economic changes.
The definition of gender equality refers to an equal condition between men and women in the fulfillment of rights and obligations.
Why is Gender Equality Necessary?
Discrimination based on gender still occurs in all aspects of life, all over the world. This is a fact despite considerable progress in gender equality today. The nature and extent of discrimination vary widely across countries or regions.
There is not a single region in a third world country where women have enjoyed equality in legal, social and economic rights. Gender disparities in opportunity and control over resources, the economy, power, and political participation are ubiquitous.
Women and girls bear the brunt of the inequality that occurs, but basically inequality is detrimental to everyone. Therefore, gender equality is the main issue of a development goal that has its own value.
Gender equality will strengthen a country’s ability to develop, reduce poverty, and govern effectively. Thus promoting gender equality is a major part of development strategies in order to empower communities for women and men to lift themselves out of poverty and improve their standard of living.
Indicators of Gender Equality
The realization of gender equality is an expected ideal condition. Gender equality is a condition in which women and men enjoy equal status and have the same conditions to fully realize their human rights and potential in all areas of life and development.
Gender justice is the process and treatment of men and women characterized by the absence of marginalization, subordination, stereotypes, violence, and double burdens.
There are 4 indicators that show the existence of Gender Equality:
There are equal opportunities between men and women in obtaining basic rights and for every available resource.
Example: Scholarship opportunities for men and women that require certain age criteria cause women to often lose access to scholarships, especially in the age range where women with gender roles in the household are fully responsible for child care. Therefore, the provision of scholarships for women without being limited to age criteria will open access for women to be able to obtain scholarship opportunities.
Example: Certain types of jobs, such as driver, security guard, are often connoted as male jobs, so job recruitment also requires that only male gender can apply for jobs. This situation will turn into gender equality if the recruitment and job acceptance process is opened to both men and women.
Equal involvement in obtaining resources, participating in decision-making both in terms of quantity and quality and determining the process of solving problems/solutions encountered.
Example: Discussions that determine the direction of development at the village level such as the Development Planning Deliberation (Musrenbang) involve both men and women so that the process and the resulting outputs take into account not only the interests of men but also women.
Equal power between men and women to use their rights efficiently and effectively.
Example: In an organization, positions or positions that are authorized to make strategic decisions are not only held by men but also women so that women are actively involved in making organizational decisions.
There is a guarantee that a policy or program will produce equal benefits for men and women, and to get the same results from development.
Example: A region decides to carry out repairs to a damaged road leading to a local government building, while at the same time a damaged road leading to a market is not repaired. Based on the aspect of benefits, repairing damaged roads leading to the market realizes equal benefits for men and women, where in general more women access the market than men as a result of the gender roles attached to women as housekeepers. .
Goals of Achieving Gender Equality
The Government of Indonesia has adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which contain 17 Goals and 169 Targets. The main principle of the SDGs is “no one left behind“.
The SDGs are expected to answer two things,
1) Procedural Justice, extent to which all parties, especially those who have been left behind, can be involved in the entire development process
2) Substantial Justice, extent to which development policies and programs can or are able to answer the problems of citizens, especially left behind groups.
The SDGs target that is directly related to the achievement of gender equality is target 5 for “Achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls.” These targets are further elaborated as follows:
5.1. End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere.
5.2. Eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls in public and private spaces, including trafficking and sexual and other forms of exploitation.
5.3. Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female circumcision.
5.4. Recognizing and respecting unpaid domestic services and work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and encouraging nationally appropriate responsibilities within the household and family.
5.5. Ensure that all women can participate fully and have equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life.
5.6. Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in the Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of the review conferences of the two
5.a. Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws
5.b. Increasing the use of applied technology, especially information and communication technology, to support women’s empowerment
5.c. Adopt and strengthen clear policies and enforce legislation to promote gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels.
Thus, all government programs and activities must be directed towards achieving the goals of the SDGs, including the goal of achieving gender equality, which is measured through 4 indicators of gender equality.