02 Dec Water Pollution in 2021: Definition, Causes, and Prevention
What is the concept of water pollution? Water pollution is described as the pollution of a waterway, stream, pond, marine, or other sources of water, resulting in a decrease in groundwater resources and toxicity to human beings and the environment.
Water contamination may be divided into two categories namely, organic and chemical pollution. Firstly, organic contamination is caused by microbial in the water, such as infectious agents, which are produced by faeces, nature and nurture waste. Secondly is chemical pollution. Pesticide nitrogen and phosphorus, animals and human medications, home items, toxic substances, chemicals, and fuels used throughout industries activities all contribute to chemical contamination.
Further reading: Life below water Challenges Solutions
What causes water contamination and where does it come from? Water contamination is mostly caused by human activities, while natural phenomena such as extreme weather events such as floods and drought can sometimes lead to the deterioration of water quality. Besides, there are several other reasons such as urbanization and deforestation; agriculture activities; sewage and wastewater; industries; and marine dumps.
The first is urbanization. Urbanization and deforestation have a lot of secondary impacts on water supply, even when they don’t have a direct influence. Chopping wood and concreting huge areas, for example, accelerates flows, leaving little time for water to penetrate and be filtered by the earth.
Secondly, agriculture activities can be categorized as the cause of water pollution. Chemicals such as fertilizers, insecticides, antimicrobials, fungicides, and insecticides, as well as livestock waste, compost, and methane, all have an influence on water contamination in agriculture (greenhouse effect). Leftover food and fertilizers cause dystrophication in aquaculture, resulting in contamination directly in the water.
Third, water desecration is caused by insufficient sewage treatment and recycling. According to the UN, more than 80% of global sewage is discharged into water bodies without being cleaned or recycled.
Next, industries generate a great deal of trash that contains dangerous chemicals and contaminants. A significant proportion of environmental contamination is discharged into clean water, which subsequently flows into waterways, streams, and finally the ocean. Water contamination may also be caused by the burning of fossil fuels, which results in air quality such as acidification, which then flows into rivers, ponds, and other bodies of water.
Lastly, Plastic, paper, metal, foodstuffs, glassware, and latex are all thrown into the water on a daily basis. These things take months to thousands of years to degrade, making them a major impact on global contamination in waterways.
There are several preventions that can be done for everyone such as plastic waste reduction, water conservation, and air desecretion prevention. Firstly is plastic waste reduction. Land-based plastic accounts for 80% of the plastic in our seas. To limit the quantity of plastic trash that enters our marine, we must cut our worldwide consumption of plastic as well as enhance plastic wastewater treatment.
Then, we won’t do much without water conservation. It plays a crucial role in ensuring that the entire globe has improved access to clean drinking water. It entails acknowledging that water is a precious commodity, caring for it appropriately, and controlling it properly.
And last but not least, because seas collect 25% of living thing Carbon dioxide emission, poor air quality has a direct impact on water pollution. Our seas are rapidly acidifying as a result of this pollution, posing a threat to aquatic life and reefs. Eliminating carbon emissions is the most effective strategy to avoid this.