10 Jun “NO POVERTY”: HOW INDONESIA ERADICATED CHILD POVERTY IN 2020
NO POVERTY is the first goal of seventeen goals in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals with commitments given by countries that are members of the United Nations to tackle various forms of poverty problems. In completing programs that have been initiated and ending poverty from all dimensions, targeted the most vulnerable, as well as improving basic services and supporting communities affected by conflict and natural disasters. According to data from UNICEF, child poverty is different from that experienced by adults because it is considered to have a prolonged (lifelong) effect of poverty, accompanied by different needs and expectations than adults.
No Poverty for Children
Since a person is born, human rights are inherent in every individual. Like adults, children also have inherent rights, including the right to good nutrition, health, education, shelter, and other public and private material resources. Their potential can be fully realized if these rights are not deprived, as well as the serious consequences of the implications of poverty can be minimized in the future. The indicator of child poverty comes from household poverty. Some children who suffer from deficiency are not detected because often the household is not categorized as poor when viewed from adult indicators. The proposed solution is that they must be identified in all national poverty reporting for the SDGs.
Those living in extreme poverty can come from countries experiencing extreme climate change, protracted conflict, and food insecurity, so getting out of poverty requires a lot of work, but this will be another problem with the same root, namely poverty.
Child Poverty in Indonesia
According to the Asian Development Bank (ADB) 2020, the proportion of the population living below the national poverty line was 9.8% and increased in September 2020 to 10.19%, which was 27.55 million from 270.2 million populations in Indonesia. A threefold increase in the poverty rate from the reduction sought. Vice President of Indonesia, Ma’ruf Amin, said that the Indonesian government itself has been trying to reduce poverty through social assistance, education, health services, and employment.
Poverty is the basis of the challenges faced by children in Indonesia, especially those living in rural areas and some other disadvantaged areas. This factor determines whether they are healthy and have the opportunity to learn and the fulfillment of other rights.
A strong spatial dimension with substantial variation between urban and rural areas is characterized by higher poverty rates in rural areas and less rapid poverty reduction than urban areas. Poverty in rural areas will be many more severe than urban areas because it allows not only poor income, but also experiences deprivation, such as lack of sanitation facilities, lack of complete vaccinations, improper nutrition, low educational opportunities, unregistered births, poor housing conditions, and so on.
The Role of UNICEF in Helping Indonesian Government in Eliminating Child Poverty in Indonesia
The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) is a body that helps children around the world meet their needs, not only to survive but also to grow and thrive. UNICEF assists countries to design, implement and monitor policies to reduce child poverty according to national definitions. The data is obtained from collecting information about children living in families who are financially deficient by looking at multidimensional poverty measures, ranging from complete profiles to child deficiencies. This information will be useful for the government to monitor state spending in providing health, education and social protection services to the poor in accordance with SDGs goal 1 target 1.B.1.
UNICEF has looked at the main problems affecting the lives of children and youth in Indonesia, including poverty, health care, education, violence, environmental challenges, etc. According to the report of The State of Children in Indonesia (UNICEF 2020), Indonesia has provided a positive trend in responding to the challenges of eliminating child poverty. Around 80 million children were affected by both Indonesia’s leadership and success in providing policies and investments. Significant progress in child welfare was being made by addressing challenges, such as getting children out of poverty and expanding access to health care and education.
“Goal 1: No Poverty: UNDP in Indonesia.” UNDP. Accessed June 10, 2021. https://www.id.undp.org/content/indonesia/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/goal-1-no-poverty.html.
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“Overview.” World Bank. Accessed June 10, 2021. https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/indonesia/overview.
Ralph. “Poverty: Indonesia.” Asian Development Bank. Asian Development Bank, May 14, 2021. https://www.adb.org/countries/indonesia/poverty#accordion-0-0.
“SDG Goal 1: No Poverty.” UNICEF DATA, May 11, 2021. https://data.unicef.org/sdgs/goal-1-no-poverty/.
United Nations Children’s Fund (2020). The State of Children in Indonesia – Trends, Opportunities and Challenges for Realizing Children’s Rights. Jakarta: UNICEF Indonesia.